At eight o'clock a guard of 1,200 horsemen arrived to escort the former king on a two-hour carriage ride to his place of execution. He was provisionally suspended by the Assembly and the royal family was placed under tight house arrest at the Tuileries Palace. Although the monarchy was still in place, an elected assembly held most of the power. Marie Antoinette was executed just under nine months later. Even as royalists accused the revolutionaries of abuse, Louis-Charles was encouraged to condemn his family for similar crimes. The guards, whom the determined countenance of Marie Antoinette, wife of Louis and Queen of France the King had for a moment disconcerted, seemed to recover their audacity.
The next January, Louis was convicted and condemned to death by a narrow majority. The deaf mute was also concealed in the Temple. The dauphin was concealed in the fourth storey of the Tower, a wooden figure being substituted for him. Birth and Early Life Louis-Charles de France was born at the Palace of Versailles in France on March 27, 1785. Though the Third Estate comprised around 98% of the French population, it was exploited by the other two estates. In 1833, he was again arrested, was brought to trial in the following year and condemned to twelve years' imprisonment.
Louis-Charles held that title until the on 21 September 1792. Their guiding motive was not so much revolutionary enthusiasm or political principle as self-preservation; they desired to prolong the era of persecution and ostracism as the surest way of saving their own heads from peril; as regicides they dreaded the return of the monarchy, as Terrorists they feared the vengeance of the people. The anger of the French people, fueled by xenophobia, targeted Marie as a prime source of their problems. Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac 1755-1841. It is said that he appeared dignified and resigned.
It was the Jacobins who won the day, gaining the support of the Plain and defeating the motion for an appel au peuple by 424 votes to 283. His wife, Mary Antoinette, was executed in the same way nine months later. Barras's account of the visit describes the child as suffering from extreme neglect, but conveys no idea of the alleged walling in. However, a much narrower majority of 387 to 334 voted for the death sentence on the 18th. The , which was still in place when the king was arrested, placed the monarch outside the jurisdiction of the courts.
Pretenders increased in regularity after the accession of in the. On January 19, 1815, the king's remains were exhumed from the Madeleine and taken by convoy to the family crypt at the Saint-Denis cathedral where all but three French kings were buried. Silence reigned for some minutes; interrupted only by sobs. The crowd began to sing la Marseillaise, the song the soldiers of the Federated National Guard had brought with them to Paris the previous year. He was named the Duke of Normandy at the time of his birth while his older brother, Louis Joseph, was the dauphin of France. After all she was only a girl, and one of no very marked individuality or force of character,— her conduct and bearing throughout the months of weary imprisonment of her father and mother while awaiting trial had been a rather pitiable foil to the heroism and noble self-devotion of her aunt, Madame Elisabeth. Laurent, to protect himself from the consequences of the substitution, replaced the wooden figure with a deaf mute, who was presently exchanged for the scrofulous child of the death certificate.
Antoine Simon's wife Marie-Jeanne, in fact, took great care of the child's person. The deputies of the Assembly agreed to both. He met his fate only a day after the National Convention condemned him to death and only hours after saying goodbye to his queen and their children the previous night. The grave was filled up,—no mound marked its place, and not even a trace remained of the interment! Three hundred and sixty-one votes were needed for a simple majority and in the end 361 deputies voted unconditionally for death. Louis died in Paris on June 8, 1795, while still in captivity.
The deputies voted next on whether the punishment should be put to a national appeal, and 424 deputies voted against the appeal. For more information please refer to our. Commander of the National Guard. By the summer of 1792, France was at war with Austria and Prussia, who were advancing swiftly into French territory. All this passed in a moment.
From this day, he was known as Citizen Louis Capet. The Jacobins within the Convention also supported the death penalty. He would not allow his counsellors to claim he was ignorant of the law, nor would he permit them to invoke pity with emotive language. Louis was granted a final visit from and his children on the evening of January 20th, however, his other requests were refused. She was executed at the guillotine on October 16, 1793.
The Great Tower was pulled down in 1811, and a square and market now occupy the site of the ancient fortress of the Knights Templars and scene of the long-drawn agony of the Family of France. In October 1789, a mob marched on Versailles and forced the royal couple to move to Tuileries; in June 1791, opposition to the royal pair had become so fierce that the two were forced to flee to Austria. In December 1999, public notaries witnessed a section of the heart muscle of the aorta removed from the rest of the heart, and the transfer of the samples into a sealed envelope, and then the opening of the sealed envelope in the laboratory to be tested. The Third Estate responded by moving to a Tennis Court where they pledged not to separate until they had given France a constitution. Every vestige of the old fabric of the Temple has disappeared. Deciding in favor of war, despite the huge financial crisis France was facing, proved to be a grave error. Shut in his Circuit of the Temple, he has heard and seen the loud whirl of things; yells of September Massacres, Brunswick war-thunders dying off in disaster and discomfiture; he passive, a spectator merely; waiting whither it would please to whirl with him.
French Legitimists organized the heart's burial in the Basilica on 8 June 2004, next to the remains of Louis's parents. The Constitutional party was composed of nearly all the two hundred and fifty members of the new Third and of many members the right of the Convention, of two Directors, Carnot and Letourneur, and of the majority of the magistrates and other officials elected in 1795. Martin's Press, 2002 , hardcover ; New York: St. After his death in 1879, Eduard Dumont received the heart. The stated cause of death was tuberculosis. The shift in public opinion was swift. On July 3, Louis-Charles was removed from his mother's care and entrusted to a cobbler named Antoine Simon and his wife, Marie-Jeanne.