She was born an Archduchess of and was the penultimate child and youngest daughter of Empress and. The crowd, impressed by the queen's courage, allowed her to live. She deserved understanding and compassion not afforded by her resentful subjects during an ill-fated, and ultimately tragic, reign as queen of France. She counted most on the support of her Austrian family. The Fête de la Fédération of the 14 July 1790. Above: Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria; the glamorous palace where Marie Antoinette was born.
La Motte encouraged the cardinal to begin writing to the Queen, and claimed to pass on the letters to her. But she was never once allowed to see the dying boy, who was separated from her only by a few stone walls and a few yards of space. This wasn't the romantic marriage of a princess and prince that you see in the movies. One of the guards came to open the carriage door, and the gendarmes would have jumped out, but the King stopped them, and leaning his arm on my knee, 'Gentlemen,' said he, with the tone of majesty, 'I recommend to you this good man; take care that after my death no insult be offered to him - I charge you to prevent it. She was 37 years old.
They were caught in the small town of Varennes, half-way to the border, and brought back to Paris, prisoners now of the Revolutionary government. Maria Antonia spent her formative years between the Hofburg Palace and , the imperial summer residence in Vienna, where on 13 October 1762, when she was seven, she met , two months her junior and a child prodigy. New York: Henry Holt and Company. This resulted in the queen being viewed as an enemy, although she was personally against Austrian claims to French territories on European soil. On 1 May 1787, , and one of the queen's political allies, was appointed by the king at her urging to replace Calonne, first as and then as Prime Minister.
The queen turned it down twice, saying it was too expensive. The first rumblings began in 1947, when the U. She also toned down her lifestyle and began to spend less. In June 1783, Marie Antoinette's new pregnancy was announced, but on the night of 1—2 November, her 28th birthday, she suffered a miscarriage. Moreover, the ancient gateway to the prison, the veritable gate and flight of steps by which the Queen—and how many other victims of the Revolution! At this point, Marie Antoinette due to her beauty and graceful nature was popular with her new subjects. The Constitutional party was composed of nearly all the two hundred and fifty members of the new Third and of many members the right of the Convention, of two Directors, Carnot and Letourneur, and of the majority of the magistrates and other officials elected in 1795. She was charged with treason and theft, and it was left up to an all male jury to decide her fate.
But Sophie, who was born premature, died just a month shy of her first birthday, and Louis Joseph, who'd been a delicate child most of his life, died two years later, at the age of 7, likely from tuberculosis. She was declared guilty and sentenced to death. Marie Antoinette had profoundly disliked Rohan since the time he had been the French ambassador to Vienna when she was a child. Like Lafayette, Mirabeau was a liberal aristocrat. But at length this noble woman too was summoned to appear before the dreaded Revolutionary Tribunal. When the affair was discovered, those involved except de La Motte and Réaux de Villette, who both managed to flee were arrested, tried, convicted, and either imprisoned or exiled.
On 11 December, among crowded and silent streets, the deposed king was brought from the Temple to stand before the Convention and hear his indictment, an accusation of High Treason and Crimes against the State. Marie loved the idea of being queen. The scene passed during the trial at a tavern near the Tuileries, where Vilate was invited to dine with Robespierre, Barere and Saint-Just. Two months later beginning of September she was removed, by order of the Convention to the Conciergerie — the old gloomy prison forming part of the vast pile of buildings of the Palais de Justice on the island of the Cité in the heart of Paris — to await her trial at the bar of the Revolutionary Tribunal. This last accusation drew an emotional response from Marie Antoinette, who refused to respond to this charge, instead appealing to all mothers present in the room; their reaction comforted her, since these women were not otherwise sympathetic to her. Later, the seven-year old Dauphin died, a tragic and devastating affair which broke the queen's heart, although her subjects were not particularly sympathetic as they grew increasingly bloodthirsty and resentful.
Marie Antoinette and her husband, the Dauphin, were married for seven years before consummating their marriage -- much to the chagrin of Marie's family, particularly her critical mother, the Empress Maria Teresa of the Holy Roman Empire. Trial and execution 14—16 October 1793 Marie Antoinette au Tribunal révolutionnaire engraving by , from a painting by , 1857 Marie Antoinette was tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal on 14 October 1793. The Queen wasn't informed the sex of the child until hours later. Nobody appeared either at the doors or windows, and in the street nothing was to be seen, but armed citizens - citizens, all rushing towards the commission of a crime, which perhaps they detested in their hearts. After receiving the priest's blessing, he went to meet , Commander of the Guard. In April 1793, during the , a dominated by was formed, and men such as began to call for Marie-Antoinette's trial. On the way to the capital they were jeered and insulted by the people as never before.
In 1774, she took under her patronage her former music teacher, the German opera composer , who remained in France until 1779. In fact, her first son, the dauphin, died on June 4, 1789. Joseph Guillotine, a French physician, developed the guillotine in 1789. Count Cagliostro, though acquitted, was exiled from France by order of the King. New York and London: Routledge, 1998, pp. This led in turn to a French declaration of war in April 1792, which led to the and to the events of August 1792, which ended the monarchy. By the end of May, the Girondins had been chased from power.